Pahami Penanganan Gangguan Sendi Rahang “Temporomandibular Disorders” yang Tepat!

November 30, 2022 by admin12
Pernahkah kamu merasakan nyeri pada area wajah dan rahang bahkan hingga kesulitan saat mengunyah? Hati-hati bisa jadi kamu mengalami gangguan sendi rahang lho. Hal ini karena otot dengan fungsi membuka dan menutup mulut memiliki kaitan erat dengan sendi rahang. Lalu apa sih yang dimaksud dengan gangguan sendi rahang? Apa saja penyebab dan gejalanya? Dan bagaimana penanganan yang harus dilakukan? Yuk cari tahu jawabannya !
Apa sih Temporomandibular Disorders ?
TMD atau Temporomandibular Disorders adalah gangguan pada sendi rahang yang membuat kita sulit mengunyah, sakit saat membuka mulut, serta rasa nyeri di area kepala dan wajah yang dapat mengganggu aktivitas sehari hari.
Faktor Penyebab
Ada banyak kemungkinan penyebab nyeri rahang, mulai dari masalah persendian hingga masalah gigi dan gusi. Rasa sakit yang disebabkan oleh masalah yang melibatkan sendi TMD mungkin akibat gangguan TMD. Gangguan TMD disebabkan oleh :
Deep pain input
Merupakan segala aktivitas di luar kebiasaan normal dan tidak mempunyai tujuan fungsional. Contohnya kebiasaan – kebiasaan buruk seperti mengunyah permen karet, bruxism, clenching, mengunyah hanya pada satu sisi atau bertopang dagu.
Cedera/ Trauma rahang
Dapat berupa trauma berat maupun trauma ringan. Pada kasus trauma berat yang tiba-tiba dan mengakibatkan perubahan struktur rahang, seperti pukulan pada wajah atau kecelakaan. Sedangkan trauma ringan tetapi berulang dalam jangka waktu yang lama, seperti mengerat dan menggesek-gesekkan gigi atas dan bawah dengan keras. Kedua hal tersebut dapat menyebabkan trauma berat pada jaringan yang terlibat, seperti gigi, sendi rahang, atau otot.
Stres sering memainkan peran yang sangat penting dalam gangguan TMJ. Selama stres, energi yang dihasilkan didistribusikan ke seluruh tubuh. Kondisi ini dapat menyebabkan gangguan seperti tekanan darah tinggi, asma, penyakit jantung atau peningkatan kontraksi otot kepala dan leher.
Penyebab lainnya
Selain itu, penyebab nyeri rahang yang berkaitan dengan gigi dapat dipengaruhi oleh Sakit gigi & Penyakit periodontal. Untuk kemungkinan penyebab lain nyeri rahang adalah Infeksi, Masalah sinus, serta Oklusi.
Gejala TMD
  • Kesulitan mengunyah dan berbicara
  • Rasa sakit atau nyeri pada area wajah dan area sendi rahang
  • Bunyi (clicking) saat sendi digerakkan
  • Bukaan mulut terbatas
  • Rahang terkunci/ tidak dapat digerakkan
  • Anamnesis lengkap
  • Pemeriksaan klinis dan penunjang (Rontgen panoramik, Rontgen TMJ hingga pemeriksaan MRI jika diperlukan)
  • Edukasi utk eliminasi faktor etiologi
  • Passive jaw exercise
  • Splint oklusal : penanganan dengan menggunakan alat untuk stabilisasi mulut dan gigi terutama dalam permasalahan pada sendi temporomandibular.
Berkonsultasilah kepada dokter gigi spesialis prostodonsia apabila merasakan gejala nyeri pada sendi rahang. Informasi & pendaftaran Jakarta Dental Clinic, Rumah Sakit Jakarta dapat menghubungi Telp 021-5732241 atau via Whatsapp 0815 8551 2655.


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    Apa perbedaan antara trauma berat dan trauma ringan pada rahang? Bagaimana trauma berat pada rahang dapat terjadi akibat pukulan atau kecelakaan, dan apa dampaknya terhadap struktur rahang? Sementara itu, bagaimana trauma ringan dapat muncul akibat aktivitas seperti menggeretakkan gigi dan menggesek-gesekkan gigi? Bagaimana dampak trauma berat atau ringan ini dapat mempengaruhi jaringan yang terlibat, seperti gigi, sendi rahang, dan otot?

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